Rezumat Nr 1, 2020
Valentin Constantin, Problemele noastre și problemele doamnei judecător Mihaela Niță
Rezumat: Am identificat în sentința penală nr. 196/F din 07.10.2019 a Curții de Apel București – Secția I penală, hotărâtă de judecătoarea Mihaela Niță, dificultățile mai generale ale sistemului penal românesc. Am argumentat că rolul dominant al convingerii intime a judecătorului îi oferă acestuia o mare putere care are nevoie de o contrapondere. Promovarea judecătorului unic în procesele penale este contrară acestui argument. Am explicat de ce Dreptul penal constituie legătura cea mai profundă a statului cu trecutul său totalitar. Am adus în discuție prescripția, care permite infractorilor experimentați să se sustragă urmăririi penale, sistemul de executare al pedepselor și cuantumul pedepselor. Am pledat pentru calitățile sistemului adversarial, prin comparație cu cel inchizitorial, care a fost vehiculul tuturor represaliilor politice. Privitor la motivarea judecătoarei, am apreciat că este împotriva rațiunii să consideri derizoriul și insignifiantul printre scopurile unei norme juridice. Considerentele doamnei judecător lezează în mod gratuit sensibilitatea celor care i-au fost apropiați lui Gheorghe Ursu, iar judecățile sale de valoare par extrase din ideologia judiciară sedimentată în perioada comunismului.
Cuvinte cheie: sentința penală, Gheorghe Ursu, Mihaela Niță, prescripție, sistem adversarial, sistem inchizitorial, represalii politice
Cristian Nuică, A legal point of view regarding the manifestation of national identity under conditions of equal opportunities in education
Rezumat: The article intends to present, in the context of the Adam case against Romania in the role of the ECHR, some answers regarding, on the one hand, the existence of a possible form of discrimination regarding the fact that the Romanian students belonging to the national minorities support, on the occasion of the examination baccalaureate, both written and oral samples of Romanian language and literature, as well as of mother tongue and literature, and on the other hand regarding the eventual discriminatory character of the way in which the support of written and oral samples of the mother tongue is organized by the students belonging to national minorities in that the students have less time to prepare and / or rest between tests compared to students who do not have the mother tongue test. The author expresses his opinion that what is the subject of the first problem analyzed is not a form of discrimination, as the right of persons belonging to a minority to maintain their national identity, including in the sense of education and training, throughout life, in the mother tongue. , is closely related to the duty to assume the official language and to integrate into the society.
Respecting the principle of non-discrimination implies taking into account the different and specific situation of national minorities, which imposes the right to receive different treatment, including in the field of education, in the sense of special measures or affirmative / positive public policies. Such measures may be aimed at the achievement of special school programs for learning the Romanian language, specifically aimed at members of a national minority, both regarding the methods of teaching the Romanian language and literature, as well as the organization of specific examinations in the official language, adapted to the special situation of minority students.
Cuvinte cheie: case of Adam vs. Romania; national minorities, national identity, equal opportunities and non-discrimination
Vladimir-Adrian Costea, La manifestation du châtiment, fondement du desiderata de la préservation de l’ordre et de la sécurité publique
Rezumat: In this article, we aim to render the nature of juridical punishment applied to detainees charged with crimes against national security or against public order and safety, especially when the interrogation and enforcement mechanisms are put into practice in a way that falls short of transparency standards. The specific manifestation of violence within law-enforcement processes is contesting the very ideatical core of the principle of human dignity, which flagrantly violates the provisions of the European Court of Human Rights. More concretely, we will refer to the recent ECHR ruling regarding the case Al Nashiri vs Romania, where we will analyze the situation of the enforcement of prison sentences in secret detention facilities, where detainees were exposed to alleged systematic torture and inhuman treatments. We will thus explore the situation when the rights of defendants who stand accused of high crimes are severely curtailed in the name of the national security imperatives.
Cuvinte cheie: sentence, human dignity, ECHR rulings, public order and safety, national security, secret detention facilities